TOEFL is the test of English as a Foreign Language. The English language test designed to measure mastery of the English language. From these tests also are needed by most colleges and some employers to make sure students and staff are able to handle the linguistic challenges of cultural immersion. This test was designed by the Center for Applied Linguistics and Educational Testing Service administered in the United States.
Previously named CAL (Center for Applied Linguistics) based in Washington DC and was founded in 1959. CAL is a non-profit that is committed to researching the relationship between language and culture. The first Director of CAL is Charles A. Ferguson (1921-1998) who was a professor at Harvard University. One project with CAL Ferguson makes a practical solution to the language of development is applied.
Ferguson is the development of a test that would mangukur command language ESL (English as a two- language) students and government employees. Ferguson and researchers developed the TOEFL test during the first five years of CAL. TOEFL was first taken by the center in 1964.
An international testing standards organizations have been managing the TOEFL test ETS (Educational Testing Service). According to ETS, between 1964 and 2008, from 24 million people , most international students have taken the test. Introduced in 2005, the Internet has replaced bebasis exams computer based format and paper -based and computer -based results are no longer valid ruled in 2006.
Since the beginning of 1970, 15 councilors have TOEFL deal with specific problems concerning the organization. The Council is comprised of educators and government representatives from industries involved in international education. A board of 12 specialists form of language testers TEOFL Committee discusses any concerns with the content and methodology of testing, maintain a valid test.
The composition of the test
Since 1998, this test was composed of 30 questions listening-based, 40-question written expression, reading-comprehension 50 questions, and a 300 word essay. Internet-based test also includes four parts by answering questions with 700 word and questions for 30 minutes of listening to a sample recording, can speak well and can write well and correctly. Internet-based test also implements table and other formats into a test.
Level on the TOEFL
Grouping scores in four levels:
- Basic Rate = 310-420
- Level Menenah Down = 420-480
- Secondary Level = 480-520
- Advanced Level = 525-677
The classification level of mastery of the English language as seen above, many universities in countries that use English as the language is not an official score, requires a certain TOEFL for prospective international students. To be accepted in the program S, scores were generally they charge is about 475 to 550, while for S2 and S3 program entry requirements TOEFL score higher at around 550 to 600.
Expansion of the use
With the times, even countries whose native language is not English, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, etc. This requires TOEFL as a forerunner to a student who can speak English fluently. In Indonesia, the TOEFL even be used also for :
- Requirements for acceptance of new employees in government agencies, private companies and the government.
- Terms of new admissions to pursue S2 and S3.
- Terms submission of scholarship, both from public and private.
TOEFL has several times experienced improvement by the provider agency ETS (Educational Testing Service). Test forms were never introduced to the public, namely :
• TOEFL Paper Based Test
Consist of 3 sections : Listening, Structure, and Reading
Maximum score : 677
• TOEFL Computer Based Test
Consists of 4 sections : listening, Structure, Reading and Writing
Maximum score : 300
• TOEFL Internet Based Test
Consists of 4 sections : Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking
Maximum score : 120
Although since the TOEFL Internet Based Test introduced worldwide, all kinds of previously is no longer valid. But the reality till today TOEFL Paper Based Test is still used widely in a variety of higher education institutions as well as for the recruitment of employees in Indonesia or in countries that do not use English.