Grammar Review

Ex. 21    Conditional Sentences

  1. Henry talks to his dog as if it understood him
  2. If they had left the house earlier, they wouldn’t  so late getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage.
  3. If I finish the dress before Saturday, I will give it to my sister for her birthday.
  4. If I had seen the movie, I would have told you about it last night.
  5. Had Bob not interfered in his sister’s marital problems, there could have been peace between them.
  6. He would give you the money if he had it.
  7. I wish they  could stop making so much noise so that I could concentrate.
  8. She would call you immiediately if she needed help.
  9. Had they arrived at the sale early, they would have found a better selection.
  10. We hope that you enjoyed the party last night.
  11. If you have enough time, please painted the chair before you leave.
  12. We could go for a drive if today were Saturday.
  13. If she wins the prize, it will be because she had writes very well.
  14. Mike wished that the editors could have permitted him to copy some of their material.
  15. Joel wishes that he could have spent his vacation on the Gulf Coast next year.
  16. will accept if they invite me to the party.
  17. If your mother buys that car for you, will you be happy?
  18. If he had decided earlier, he could have left on the afternoon flight.
  19. Had we known your address, we would have written you a letter.
  20. If the roofer doesn’t come soon, the rain couldn’t leak inside.
  21. Because Rose did si poorly on the exam, she whises that she had studied harder last night.
  22. My dog always wakes me up if he heard strange noises.
  23. If you seen Mary today, please ask her to call me.
  24. If he gets the raise, it will be because he does a good job.
  25. The teacher will not accept our work if we turned it in late.
  26. Mrs. Wood always talks to her tenth-grade students as though they were adults.
  27. If he had left already, he would have called us.
  28. If they had known him, they could have talked to him.
  29. He would understand it if you could explained it to him more slowly.
  30. I could understand the French teacher if she could spoke more slowly.


Ex. 26    Adjectives and Adverbs

  1. Rita plays the violin well.
  2. That is an intense novel.
  3. The sun is shining bright.
  4. The girls speak fluent French.
  5. The boys speak Spanish fluently.
  6. The table has a smooth surface.
  7. We must figure our income tax returns accurately.
  8.  We don’t like to drink bitter tea.
  9. The plane will arrive soon.
  10. He had an accident because he was driving too fast.


Ex. 27    Linking (Copulative) Verbs

  1. Your cold sounds terrible.
  2. The pianist plays very well.
  3. The food in the restaurant always tastes good.
  4. The campers remained calm despite the thunderstorm.
  5. They became sick after eating the contaminated food.
  6. Professor Calandra looked quickly at the students sketches.
  7. Paco was working diligently in the project.
  8. Paul protested vehemently about the new proposals.
  9. Our neighbors appreared relaxed after their vacation.
  10. The music sounded too noisy to be classical.


Ex. 28    Comparisons

  1. John and his friends left as soon as the professor had finished his lecture.
  2. His job is more important than his friend’s.
  3. He plays the guitar as well as Andres Segovia.
  4. A new house is much more expensive than an older one.
  5. Last week was as hot as this week.
  6. Martha is more talented than her cousin.
  7. Bill’s descriptions are more colorful than his wife’s.
  8. Nobody is happier than Maria Elena.
  9. The boys felt worse than the girls about losing the game.
  10. A greyhound runs faster than a Chihuahua.


Ex. 29    Comparisons

  1. The Empire State Building is taller than the Statue of Liberty.
  2. California is farther from New York than Pennsylvania.
  3. His assignment is different from mine.
  4. Louise reads more quickly than his sisters.
  5. No animal is so big as King Kong.
  6. That report is less impressive than the government’s.
  7. Sam wears the same shirt as his teammates.
  8. Dave paints much more realistically than his professor.
  9. The twins have less money at the end of the month than they have at the beginning.
  10. Her sports car is different from Nancy’s.


Ex. 30    Comparisons

  1. Of the four dresses, I like the red one best.
  2. Phil is the happiest person that we known.
  3. Pat’s car is faster than Dan’s.
  4. This is the creamist ice cream I have had in a log time.
  5. This poster is more colorful  than the one in the ball.
  6. Does Fred feel better  today than he did yesterday?
  7. This vegetable soup tastes very good.
  8. while trying to balance the baskets on her head, the woman walked more awkwardly than her daughter.
  9. Jane is the less athletic of all the women.
  10. My car is the prettier of the two.
  11. This summary is the best of the pair.
  12. Your heritage is different from mine.
  13. This painting is less impressive than the one in the other gallery.
  14. The colder the weather gets, the sicker I feel.
  15. No sooner had he received the letter than he called Maria.
  16. A mink coat costs twice as much as a sable coat.
  17. Jim has as few opportunities to play tennis as I.
  18. That recipe calls for many more sugar than mine does.
  19. The museum is the farthest away of the three buildings.
  20. George Washington is more famous than John Jay.

Ari Sulistyawati 




Test of English Foreign Language


TOEFL is the test of English as a Foreign Language. The English language test designed to measure mastery of the English language. From these tests also are needed by most colleges and some employers to make sure students and staff are able to handle the linguistic challenges of cultural immersion. This test was designed by the Center for Applied Linguistics and Educational Testing Service administered in the United States.


Previously named CAL (Center for Applied Linguistics) based in Washington DC and was founded in 1959. CAL is a non-profit that is committed to researching the relationship between language and culture. The first Director of CAL is Charles A. Ferguson (1921-1998) who was a professor at Harvard University. One project with CAL Ferguson makes a practical solution to the language of development is applied.


Ferguson is the development of a test that would mangukur command language ESL (English as a two- language) students and government employees. Ferguson and researchers developed the TOEFL test during the first five years of CAL. TOEFL was first taken by the center in 1964.


An international testing standards organizations have been managing the TOEFL test ETS (Educational Testing Service). According to ETS, between 1964 and 2008, from 24 million people , most international students have taken the test. Introduced in 2005, the Internet has replaced bebasis exams computer based format and paper -based and computer -based results are no longer valid ruled in 2006.


Since the beginning of 1970, 15 councilors have TOEFL deal with specific problems concerning the organization. The Council is comprised of educators and government representatives from industries involved in international education. A board of 12 specialists form of language testers TEOFL Committee discusses any concerns with the content and methodology of testing, maintain a valid test.

The composition of the test

Since 1998, this test was composed of 30 questions listening-based, 40-question written expression, reading-comprehension 50 questions, and a 300 word essay. Internet-based test also includes four parts by answering questions with 700 word and questions for 30 minutes of listening to a sample recording, can speak well and can write well and correctly. Internet-based test also implements table and other formats into a test.

Level on the TOEFL

Grouping scores in four levels:

  • Basic Rate = 310-420
  • Level Menenah Down = 420-480
  • Secondary Level = 480-520
  • Advanced Level = 525-677

The classification level of mastery of the English language as seen above, many universities in countries that use English as the language is not an official score, requires a certain TOEFL for prospective international students. To be accepted  in the program S, scores were generally they charge is about 475 to 550, while for S2 and S3 program entry requirements TOEFL score higher at around 550 to 600.

Expansion of the use

With the times, even countries whose native language is not English, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, etc. This requires TOEFL as a forerunner to a student who can speak English fluently. In Indonesia, the TOEFL even be used also for :

  1. Requirements for acceptance of new employees in government agencies, private companies and the government.
  2. Terms of new admissions to pursue S2 and S3.
  3. Terms submission of scholarship, both from public and private.


TOEFL has several times experienced improvement by the provider agency ETS (Educational Testing Service). Test forms were never introduced to the public, namely :

• TOEFL Paper Based Test

Consist of  3 sections : Listening, Structure, and Reading

Maximum score : 677

• TOEFL Computer Based Test

Consists of 4 sections : listening, Structure, Reading and Writing

Maximum score : 300

• TOEFL Internet Based Test

Consists of 4 sections : Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking

Maximum score : 120

Although since the TOEFL Internet Based Test introduced worldwide, all kinds of previously is no longer valid. But the reality till today TOEFL Paper Based Test is still used widely in a variety of higher education institutions as well as for the recruitment of employees in Indonesia or in countries that do not use English.